This work was carried out with the support of the International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. We would like to acknowledge the University Corporation of Atmospheric Research and the Earth System Grid for providing the CCSM3 code and modeling results, the National Snow and Ice Data Center for providing the SMMR/SSM/I Daily Polar Gridded Tb, Sea Ice Concentrations, Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington for providing IABP/POLES data. We thank Dr. S.-I. Akasofu (IARC), Dr. I. Polyakov (IARC), and Dr. V. Alexeev (IARC) for important recommendations, Kim Cox (IARC) for help during this project.